Mutual Funds

Mutual Funds

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What is Mutual Funds ?

Mutual funds are the market linked funds. Selection of specific funds in your investment portfolio is termed as mutual funds. One of the best advantages of the mutual fund is instead of selecting a single fund you can invest in multiple funds of your choice.

Over the period of 5 years, your funds can fetch maximum returns. Mutual funds are always subjected to the market risks you must pick them carefully with thorough analysis and due diligence. Once suitable mutual funds are brought then you don't have to worry about returns. The professional fund manager will take care of your investment. He will ensure to deliver the best output, as he earns his bread and butter out of it.

You must also have an idea about which mutual funds to select and create your mutual fund's portfolio accordingly. Before investing in the mutual funds you must understand the different type of mutual funds where you can invest. There may not be any good or bad type of mutual funds it all depends upon the risk appetite of the investors.

Though you can't predict which funds will perform better what you can do is keep a constant watch on the market. Analyzing the market frequently can give you a fair idea about the performance of your funds. Investing in mutual funds involves risk, you must stay updated about it by reading the offer document thoroughly.

Structure of Mutual Funds

Open-Ended

In Open-Ended mutual funds, there is no locking period because of which they are preferred by many investors. In this kind of mutual funds, you can withdraw the amount any time without any load. Such funds facilitate ease of liquidity anytime. However, for the best gain, you must stay invested for the longer duration.

Close-Ended

Such funds got the locking period. You may not be able to withdraw your funds before a certain time period. Locking period may vary anytime between 3 to 5 years. People who are spendthrift and got the urge of liquidating their fund for not very important reason should invest in such funds.

Types of Mutual Funds

Mutual funds are bifurcated based on the asset classes. Basically, your asset classes are the sector that can yield you larger benefits when invested prudentially. Some types of mutual funds are tabulated and elaborated below.

Sno. Types of Mutual Funds
1. Equity Funds
2. Debt Funds
3. Hybrid Funds
4. Money Market Funds
5. Index Funds

Equity funds

Technically equity can be defined as the difference between the value of assets and liabilities. Such funds usually involves more risks, at the same time, the chances of getting the profits are also higher in such funds. Example of equity funds can be best illustrated with the help of a person who plans to finance his car. If he has taken a car of Rs. 10,00,000 and plans to pay Rs. 3,00,000 than his equity will be equivalent to the amount he has paid. Your equity funds may get invested in various other instruments of investments. Usually, your equity funds gets invested in the stocks of the companies. There can be one company or many companies where your asset class of equity will get invested in. A fund manager may circulate your money among many types of equities.

Sno. Types of Equity Funds
1. ELSS
2. Sector Funds
3. Equity-Diversified Funds
4. Global Funds
  • ELSS - ELSS is one of the popular types of equity funds. It's an equity-linked saving scheme that can help you in saving tax. ELSS is a closed fund that has got a locking period of 3 years. Such equity funds can be invested in SIP or as a lump sum. There is no constraint of age to invest in such funds. According to Section 80 C of Income Tax Act of 1961, you can save up to Rs. 1,50,000 through these funds.

  • Sector Funds - Sector funds are the kind of funds that invest completely in enterprises for specific industry or sector of the economy.

  • Equity- Diversified Funds - Such funds invest in companies irrespective of their sector and size. They get expanded across the stock market to secure maximum gain.

  • Global Funds - Global funds can offer you the most versatile options. Such kinds of funds got global reach of investments.For example, If your funds get invested in the gold mining than it will be diversified across the globe in the gold mining stocks. Similarly, worldwide circulation of other categories like mining, commodities, agriculture, and energy can be expected. A fund manager may play a crucial role in deciding how your funds need to be invested.

Debt Funds

Debt funds are less risky than your equity funds. Since it involves fewer risks the chances of making a profit out of it are also less as compared to equity. This class of mutual funds chooses a safer investment. Some of the funds where your debt funds are invested are fixed income, securities, bonds and likewise.

Sno. Types of Debt Funds
1. Gilt Funds
2. Income Funds
3. Credit Opportunities Funds
4. Liquid Funds
5. Monthly Income Plans
6. Fixed Maturity Funds
7. Short-term Funds
8. Ultra-Short Funds
9. Dynamic Mutual Funds
  • Gilt Funds - Gilt funds are the kind of debt funds that invest in government securities, state development loans, and central development loans. Returns on such funds are based on the movement of the interest rate. The decline in the interest rate is the best time to invest in the Gilt Funds.

  • Income funds - Income funds are the type of mutual funds that invest your money in securities that can facilitate you with dividends or the payment of interest. Such funds can procure common stocks, preferred stocks or even the investment trust in the real estate.

  • Credit Opportunities Funds - They are the kind of debt mutual funds. These funds follow the accumulation strategy to provide the best returns. In order to generate high yield, credit risk is taken. Credit opportunities funds makes investments in credit rated funds that have a lower value.

  • Liquid Funds - Liquid funds are the kind of debt funds that invest your money in short-term market instruments like government securities, treasury bills and also call money that can hold a lesser amount of risk.

  • Monthly Income Plans - Monthly Income Plans (MIP) are funds that are created for most conservative investors like pensioners who are not willing to take any sort of risks. 80% of MIP Corpus is contributed in the debt funds and rest in the stocks.

  • Fixed Maturity Funds - Fixed maturity funds invest their funds in fixed income plans like bonds and certificates of deposits. These funds are closed-ended that has got fixed tenure. The time period may range anywhere between 30 days to 5 years.

  • Short-Term Funds - Short term mutual funds are based on the dividend and growth options. These funds may provide better returns as compared to the bank deposits. The rate of return that you can expect can be anywhere between 8-9% based on the asset involved in your short-term funds.

  • Ultra- Short Funds - Ultra-Short funds are the kinds of funds that invest their money in fixed income earnings. These funds may yield the best returns within a period of six months.

Hybrid Funds

Hybrid funds are a mixture of debt and equity. Since it's a mixture of both debt as well as equity the risk that is involved is very calculative in this.

Sno. Types of Hybrid Funds
1. Arbitrage Hybrid Funds
2. Asset Allocation Hybrid Funds
  • Arbitrage Hybrid Funds - Arbitrage funds are the kinds of mutual funds that utilize price differences in the cash and derivative markets to generate best returns. These funds provide instant solutions for the low risk-taking investors. In the ever volatile market Hybrid Mutual Funds are the safest place to park your hard-earned money.

  • Asset Allocation Hybrid Funds - Asset allocation funds are the funds that facilitate investors with a versatile portfolio of investments across various types of asset classes. The asset allocation of the funds can be variable or fixed among a mix of asset classes. Popular assets categories for asset allocation funds are inclusive of bonds, stocks & cash equivalents.

Money Market Funds

Money market funds are the kind of mutual funds that are kind of open-ended mutual funds. Such kinds of funds further get invested in commercial papers, US treasury bills, certificates of deposits (CD), Banker's Acceptance, Repurchase Agreements etc.

Sno. Money Market Funds
1. Repurchase Agreement (Repos)
2. Treasury Bills (T-Bills)
3. Commercial Papers (CPC)
4. Certificate of Deposits (CD)
  • Repurchase Agreement - Repurchase agreement also called as Repos is an agreement that involves sales of government securities. The assent is made to purchase the same security back at a higher price at a later date for the benefit of the investors only.

  • Treasury Bills - Treasury bill is a process of lending the money to the government. Funds get further invested in bonds, stocks, and bills. These bills carry certain face value and that determines there wealth as well.

  • Commercial Bills - Commercial bill is a low-risk investment. It is a negotiable short-term, self-liquidating fund. These bills are also called as Trade Bills.

  • Certificate of Deposits - Certificate of deposit is a certificate issued to a person who deposits his money in the bank for the specified tenure. The rate of interest is fixed in this case.

Index Funds

Index funds are the funds that are usually invested in Standard & Poor's 500 Index ( S& P 500). Purpose of investing in Index funds is broad market exposure, low portfolio turnover, and low operating expenses. Investing in index funds is less painful for the fund's managers. After investing in index funds your funds automatically gets invested in the top companies. There are many kinds of Index funds that you can select from. Some of them are tabulated below.

Sno. Types of Index Funds
1. Vanguard Index Funds
2. Schwab S& P Index Funds
3. Fidelity Spartan 500 Index Investor Shares
4. T.Rowe Price Equity Index

The above mentioned are just few there are many more index funds to consider. Such funds are picked based on the performance of the company. The fund manager may have the authority to shuffle them according to the market.

Benefits of Investing in Mutual Funds

Since it's market linked plan there is no limit on returns. You just need to keep a track on the market. Staying invested for long also can surely give you better returns. Some of the benefits of your mutual benefits are tabulated below.

Sno. Benefits of Mutual Funds Reason
1. Dedicated Fund Manager Efficient and Profesional management of funds
2. Flexibility to Liquidate your Funds No locking period in the case of open-ended mutual funds
3. Convenient Payment You can choose the payment period as per your comfort level
4. Minimum Investment Starts with the Least Investment
5. Many Mutual Funds Players Can choose from various mutual fund players
6. Benefits of Tax Management You can get all the tax benefits as per section 80 C of the Income Tax Act of 1961
7. Best Returns Unlimited returns can be expected if the market is doing good
  1. Dedicated Fund Manager - Mutual funds are managed by the proficient fund managers. He or she can circulate long funds in the best possible way. After choosing the right funds you can just rely on the fund manager to handle your funds. They can shuffle your funds to grant you the best returns.

  2. Flexibility to Liquidate Your Funds - In case of open structured mutual funds, you can liquidate your funds as and when you need. In the case of closed-end mutual funds also the locking period is not that much.

  3. Convenient Payment - You can make payment in flexible intervals for your mutual funds. Payment period can be chosen weekly, monthly, bi-annually or even yearly.

  4. Minimum Investment - You can start in the mutual funds with as low as Rs. 500. This is one of the lowest investment you can begin with. You can't begin investment with such a low amount in any other funds.

  5. Many Mutual Fund Players - There are many mutual fund players that you can select from. This gives you an added flexibility to choose your funds from the desired player.

  6. Benefits of Tax Management - You can save your tax from mutual funds according to Section 80c of the Income Tax Act of 1961. Tax on the benefits is levied only on the capital gain returns.

  7. Best Returns - Since the risk involved in the mutual funds is highest you can expect the best returns from these funds as well.

Features of Mutual Funds

Before investing in the mutual funds you must understand what are the unique features of the mutual funds. Some features of the mutual funds that can interest you are as follows:-

  1. Linked with the Market - Mutual funds value completely depends on the market. There is no criteria of its increase and it can rise to an unlimited extent. At the same time, there is a good risk involved in falling of your funds as well. To get the best returns you can stay updated with the current trends in the market.

  2. Can give you unlimited returns - The best part about mutual funds is by investing here you can expect unlimited returns. You can always invest wisely so that you can get maximum returns in your funds. Best returns can be anticipated if your funds are invested in the market for the longer duration.

  3. Volatility - Mutual funds get invested in the most volatile market. You must have a good idea of the market before investing to avoid any kind of risk.

  4. There are lots of funds to choose from - There are many kinds of funds that you can choose from. Try to choose your funds with lots of due diligence to get the maximum gain.

  5. Involves a combination of various types of Instruments to Invest - Your mutual funds get invested in many instruments such as bonds, securities and likewise. You can anticipate which sector will perform better and invest there accordingly. Proper investment can always yield the best results. You can always delegate this tasks to the experts like fund managers who can assure you the best returns.

How to Buy Mutual Funds?

You can buy mutual funds through many platforms. Some ways you can buy mutual funds are through net banking, visiting a bank branch or contacting mutual fund companies. The process is quite simple, you just need to select the portfolio where you are planning to invest. You can also buy it through a fund manager as well. In fact, there are multiple sources of investing in mutual funds. Some of the common channels of buying it are as follows.

  • Fund Managers - You can always contact the fund managers who can help you suggest the desired mutual funds that you plan to purchase. These fund managers got indebt understanding of the market and can help you in choosing the best funds. They are constantly engaged in analyzing the best funds in the market. By paying a certain commission to them you can assure to get best returns.

  • Mutual Fund Companies - You may choose to buy your funds directly from the mutual fund companies of your choice. There are many fund management companies to select. Try to analyze them thoroughly and choose the funds from the one that is most suitable.

  • Banks - You can always choose your funds through banks as well. In order to start investing in mutual funds through banks, your KYC should be complete first of all. Investing in mutual funds through banks is a quite simple task. All you need to do is just select your mutual fund and begin the investment.

  • Online Platform - Mutual funds can be easily brought online as well. To buy your mutual fund online your E-KYC must be complete. If you have certain knowledge about the mutual funds than you can always buy directly from the mutual fund companies. If you wish to regulate your mutual fund portfolio through a fund manager than you can buy it through your banks online.

Investment Approach in Mutual funds

People are often confused about how to invest in the best possible way in mutual funds. Different people may have a different approach in mutual funds. You can always take calculative steps to invest in mutual funds. There can be few investment approaches you can take to make your mutual fund's investment successful. Such an approach may not guarantee assured returns but certainly better ones.

Consistent Investment Approach

If you keep your funds invested for a longer period in the market than it can surely give you better returns. Patience is indeed a key in the field of mutual funds.

Play Safe

Safety is always important but at the same time, you should not hesitate in liquidating your funds when the market is blooming. You must keep your capital protected. Invested in mutual funds is subject to certain risks that you must stay cautious about.

Trend-Based Approach

You must keep track of what's trending in the market and invest accordingly. If you keep watch of the current market then it can be certainly rewarding. Best decision can always be made in context to the changing times and the market.

Management of Risks

This approach is good for managing your debt funds. While investing in mutual funds you can't avoid getting risk-prone but you can always stay calculative. This can help you in protecting your capital to a great extent.

Methodical and Deliberate Approach

This approach lays emphasis on emerging themes rather than tips and tricks. Adopting this approach can help you in taking a more rational decision.

Bottom-up Approach

This approach helps in focussing on all the sectors equally. Fund managers do the required due diligence to suggest you the best companies. On an average, there are 5 to 10 companies that remain in the portfolio in such an approach. Investing in top companies is the best decision for the mutual funds investments.

Basic and Fundamental Investors Approach

In-house literature & research forms the foundation of this investment. Research may not be just limited to the financial numbers, it goes beyond the literature and research. Fund manager walks an extra mile with the help of a research analyst and visits the company to analyze the likely growth of funds in the future. This strategy can help in further brainstorming about how to invest your mutual funds.

Quality Preference Approach

Quality reigns supreme for your funds management. If the quality of your funds is ignored then it can prove to be quite detrimental for your funds. Priority of the fund managers should always be the quality otherwise it will surely lead to huge loss.

How to Overcome Challenges in Mutual Funds?

Since mutual funds are linked to market they are very versatile. You must stay cautious to protect your funds always. There are some common drawbacks of mutual funds that can make an investor more vulnerable to the risks. You must combat these challenges to enjoy the maximum benefit from your mutual funds. Some strategies to manage these pitfalls are as follows.

  • Managing the Risks of Returns - One of the biggest challenge that you may find while investing in mutual funds is there are no assured returns. Mutual funds are always subject to the market risks, you must invest in them cautiously. Best way to deal with these drawbacks is by keeping your investment in mutual funds little versatile. You have lots of funds to choose from. Create a mix of the portfolio that can yield the best returns. Your portfolio can be a mix of debt, equity, hybrid, and others best performing mutual funds.

  • Lazy Cash Utilisation - At times in your mutual fund's certain portion of your cash remains underutilized. Your cash not invested anywhere is a sheer waste. The invested cash can always give you best returns that may not be immediate. But if you stay invested for a longer duration, it will certainly be beneficial.

  • Minimize the Mutual Fund Fee - Though your mutual funds may assure you good returns but you need to pay a certain fee to the fund managers that can reduce the average of your returns. To minimize this fee you can buy the mutual funds as per your budget. Every mutual fund may have a different fee. Usually, the open mutual funds with no exit loads may have the least fee. Choose the mutual funds as per your budget and the financial goals.

  • Avoiding Diworsification - Diworsification is mismanagement of your funds. At times in order to diversify the funds, investors invest in so many funds that it doesn't yield any benefits. One must invest their funds wisely for better returns.

  • Mindful Investment - At times an investor may not be clear about the purpose of investment in the mutual funds. He may get allured by "Get Rich" and other similar promotions linked with mutual funds. A sensible thing to do here is to read the terms and conditions of the mutual funds thoroughly. This will give you a better clarity of the objectives of your investment in the mutual funds.

Common Mutual Fund Jargons

  • NAV - Net Asset Value (NAV) indicates a fund value per share. NAV is basically calculated by deducting liabilities from entity's assets. It's often used in the context of open-ended mutual funds.

  • Mid-Caps - Since mutual funds are very much related to investing in stocks this term plays a very important role. Mid-cap is typically a company with the market capitalization between 2 to 10 billion dollars.

  • New Funds Offer (NFO) - NFO is the initial subscription offered for any fresh fund issued by an investment company. People often mistook it with an IPO, however, it has no connection with the same.

  • Small-Caps - Small caps are the ones whose market capitalization is rated anywhere between 300 million dollars to 2 billion dollars.

  • Large-Caps - Large caps are the companies whose market capitalization is done above 10 billion dollars.

  • Redemption - Redemption is defined as the unit of the funds that are canceled, sold or transferred.

  • Entry & Exit Loads - Entry load refers to the amount of fee an investor needs to pay for entering in the mutual funds. Exit loads are the penalty fee mutual fund company charges for an untimely exit.

  • Units of Funds or Shares - Mutual fund managers invest in unit or share of the fund where they want to invest. More investment in the unit or shares will lead to better investment if they are selected according to the market performance.

  • Offer Document - Offer documents are the documentation of the mutual funds in details. It contains each and every information pertaining to the mutual funds. Investors must read it thoroughly before investing. To be precise it's a formal document that summarises basic features of the mutual funds along with its rules and regulations.

    It also contains investment objectives of the funds. Details of investments made in securities and asset classes are also elaborated in the offered documents. Besides the terms and conditions, mutual funds also showcase details of managing authority, associated risks, performance history, and other financial affairs.

  • Asset Under Management (AUM) AUM is the holistic market value of funds that are handled and managed by a particular mutual funds company.

  • Expense Ratio The expense ratio is the entire expense spent by the funds when compared to the total assets it acquires.

  • Floating Rate Debt It's a kind of mutual funds whose rate fluctuates according to the market situations.

  • Lock-in Period This is the minimum tenure you need to keep your funds in the mutual funds. Usually, this duration is for 3 years. In the lock-in period, the funds are locked according to its time period.

  • Systematic Investment Plan (SIP) SIP is the shorter duration of the period when you have to invest your funds. By investing in SIPS investor gets the flexibility to invest for a shorter period that can be weekly, quarterly or monthly. Through SIP you can start your mutual fund with as low as Rs. 500.

  • Lump-Sum Lump-sum is a one-time investment. To invest in such funds you may need a huge amount of capital. Such kind of investment is done by the retired person or big businessman.

  • Systematic Withdrawl Plan (SWP) SWP permits the investor to withdraw their fixed or variable funds periodically. The amount can be withdrawn at a specified date either monthly, quarterly, bi-annually or annually.

  • Offshore Funds These are the funds that are invested in international ventures. NRI can invest in such funds that are governed by the offshore companies. These funds are regulated as per the directions of Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

  • Holding Period This is the time period for which an investor hold their funds. The period starts from the date of purchase to its sale.

  • Switch Funds There are certain mutual funds that give investors the flexibility to switch or shift their funds from one investment scheme to another. Mutual funds offer this benefits by charging a fee for switching within the funds. The investor has the option of either shifting his complete investment or can do it partially as well. Transfer can be done according to the goals, risk appetite & other factors depending upon the investor.

How to Analyse Mutual Funds Performance?

Case Study:-

Rohit, a 23 years old graphic designer wants to have maximum gain within a period of 5 years. He's not too sure where he should invest to have the maximum gain. He consulted a certified Insurance manager for the advice. He suggested him to invest at least 20% on the mutual funds to enter the market and take a calculative risk. Rohit wanted to know more about the mutual funds like how it works and how can he can track the performance of the market. His portfolio manager Rahul shared the basic details of the live market. The technical terms mentioned in the chart can be checked in the mutual funds jargon sections.

Mutual Funds Portfolio

Mutual Funds NAV Return% (1 years) Return% (3 years) Return% (5 years)
SBI 57.73 4.08 14.69 17.09
HDFC 51.8 -9.01 11.62 22.42
Axis Bank 44.47 5.33 12.57 21.87
ICICI 42.57 4.7 9.81 12.26
Reliance 42.12 -5.96 15.68 31.39
Mutual Funds Graph

With the help of the graph above you can always analyze the value of your fund's growth. According to the above graph, you can easily infer that the Reliance mutual funds are yielding the maximum returns. You can also pick up the mutual funds based on their past performance as well. This may give you a certain idea about the fund's performance. However much depends upon the market fluctuations. These funds are completely depended upon the market volatility. You may have a rough idea about the fund performance but no one can predict the exact percentage of their growth. Above analysis convinced Rahul to pick up his mutual funds from Reliance. You can always do a similar analysis before picking up your mutual funds.

Mutual Funds - Faq's

1. Can you gain by investing in mutual funds?

You can gain in mutual funds by staying invested for a longer time. Mutual funds are often depended on the fluctuations of the markets. There is risk involved in such investments but at the same time, there is a good amount of gain also that can be easily expected through your mutual funds. In order to get the maximum benefits, you must stay invested in the market for a longer duration.

2. What's the criteria for investing in mutual funds?

You can start investing in mutual funds through multiple platforms like banks, mutual fund companies, online or offline. To start investing in the mutual funds instantly, first of all, your KYC should be complete. You can easily do so by submitting the required documents. As soon as you deposit the required papers you can start investing in the mutual funds.

3. For how long you need to stay invested in the mutual funds?

There is no fixed tenure to invest in a mutual fund. Staying invested in the mutual fund for a longer time can surely give you a better return. You may be able to see good results after the end of the fifth year onwards.

4. What is the best mutual fund that you can invest in?

There are lots of mutual funds portfolio available in the market. You may get confused by looking at so many options. It's difficult to say which one's are good or bad. To pick up the best mutual funds for yourself you can always go through various kind of mutual funds. You can pick the one’s that can match your risk appetite.

5. Are your funds safe in mutual funds?

Mutual funds investment is always linked to the market. People gain a lot if they invest in such funds wisely. The best strategy to invest in such funds is to understand the markets thoroughly and invest accordingly. You got lots of funds to choose from, select the one that is most suitable for your portfolio and make the investment accordingly. There is more or less no limit of growth in the mutual funds markets.

6. Why you should invest in mutual funds?

Other investments may have a limited scope of returns. You can expect highest returns through mutual funds only. However, as known mutual funds are always subject to the market risks so read the offer documents carefully to get the maximum gain out of it.

7. What is the minimum amount to invest in mutual funds?

One of the best parts about the mutual investment is you can start with as low as Rs. 500 per month. There is no other investment that can facilitate you with such a low amount to enter. This may cost you even less than a daily expense of your tea.

8. For how much time you must invest in mutual funds?

There is no fixed time about how long you need to invest in the mutual funds. Longer you invest better it is. At times you can expect the returns in a shorter duration as well. The time period of investment is not fixed at all. If you are lucky then you may expect the returns in a shorter duration as well.

9. What is the risk involved in the mutual funds?

Mutual funds are directly related to the fluctuation in the market. Risk of the mutual fund is more or less related to the risk in the market.

10. What is the right time to invest in mutual funds?

You must start investing in mutual funds as soon as possible. If you haven't started yet than the right time is now. Don't get trapped by the astrologer who will suggest you some quick tricks to make money based on your zodiac signs. You can choose the mutual funds portfolio that has got good potential to grow in future.

11. How to Get Maximum Advantage in Mutual Funds?

Mutual funds can give the maximum advantage if your funds remain in the market for the longer duration. To get maximum returns you must understand the market trends. If you are confused about the market than you can always take the help of the fund manager.

12. How to Begin Investing in Mutual Funds?

Investing in Mutual funds is simple. You can start by investing just Rs. 500 per month. Many people think when there are so much safer options available for investments why at all one should invest in mutual funds? The answer is simple, more risk you take better are the chances of gain. If you have some appetite of risk than you can choose to invest in mutual funds.

But if you are very scared to invest in such kind of investment than you can refrain yourself in investing here. Mutual funds are the best investment for the people who want to play a bigger game and don't want to get stuck in a smaller investment. Higher risks you take better are the chances for you to get benefitted out of it.

13. How to select the best funds for yourself?

Certain tactics can certainly help you pick up the best funds for yourself. Few things you can keep in mind for selecting the best funds for yourself are tabulated below.

Sno. How to Select Best Mutual Funds?
1. Select according to your Risk Appetite
2. Invest According to your age
3. Have Patience
4. Invest in Many Portfolios
5. Manage Inflations